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Monday, May 12, 2014


            On this date, 12 May 1945, Ernst Kaltenbrunner nicknamed The Double Scarface SS was arrested was captured and arrested by a U.S Patrol. I will post information about him from Wikipedia and other internet sources.

Obergruppenführer und General der Polizei und Waffen-SS Dr. Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Chief of the RSHA and President of Interpol.
Ernst Kaltenbrunner in an official photo, Obergruppenführer insignias are visible his collars, therefore the photo was taken on or after June 21, 1943 (the date which he was promoted to Obergruppenführer).

Director of the Reich Main Security Office
In office
30 January 1943 – 12 May 1945
Appointed by
Adolf Hitler
Preceded by
Reinhard Heydrich / Heinrich Himmler (acting)
Succeeded by
President of Interpol
In office
30 January 1943 – 12 May 1945
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Personal details
4 October 1903
Ried im Innkreis, Austria-Hungary (now Austria)
16 October 1946 (aged 43)
Nuremberg, Germany
Political party
National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP)
Elisabeth Eder (married 14 January 1934)
Alma mater
University of Graz
Roman Catholic
Military service
Nazi Germany
Years of service
Obergruppenführer und General der Polizei und Waffen-SS
World War II
Knights Cross of the War Merit Cross with Swords

Ernst Kaltenbrunner (4 October 1903 – 16 October 1946) was an Austrian-born senior official of Nazi Germany during World War II. An Obergruppenführer (general) in the Schutzstaffel (SS), between January 1943 and May 1945 he held the offices of Chief of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA, Reich Main Security Office) and President of the ICPC, later to become Interpol. He was the highest-ranking member of the SS to face trial at the first Nuremberg Trials. He was found guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity and executed.

Early life

Born in Ried im Innkreis, Austria, Kaltenbrunner was the son of a lawyer, and was educated at the State Realgymnasium in Linz and at Graz University. He obtained a law degree in 1926, and briefly worked as a lawyer in Linz and Salzburg. He was a very tall man, standing just over 6' 7" (201 cm) tall, and had deep scars on his face from dueling in his student days. However, according to some sources, these "dueling scars" were actually the result of an alcohol-related driving accident.

Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Heinrich Himmler, August Eigruber, and other SS officials visiting Mauthausen concentration camp in 1941.

SS career

Kaltenbrunner joined the Nazi Party and his NSDAP number was 300,179. In 1932, he joined the SS in Austria. His SS number was 13,039. He was the Gauredner (district speaker) and Rechtsberater (legal consultant) of the SS Abschnitt VIII. In January 1934, Kaltenbrunner was briefly jailed by the Engelbert Dollfuss government with other National Socialists at the Kaisersteinbruch concentration camp. In 1934, he was jailed again on suspicion of High Treason in the assassination of Dollfuss. This accusation was dropped, but he was sentenced to six months for conspiracy. In 1934, Kaltenbrunner married Elisabeth Eder (b. 1908) and they had three children. In addition to the children from his marriage, Kaltenbrunner had twins, Ursula and Wolfgang, (b. 1945) with his long-time mistress Gisela Gräfin von Westarp (née Wolf). All of his children survived the war.

From mid-1935 Kaltenbrunner was the leader of the Austrian SS. He assisted in the Anschluss and Hitler promoted him to SS-Brigadeführer on the day the Anschluss was completed. On 11 September 1938 he was promoted to the rank of SS-Gruppenführer, equivalent to a lieutenant general in the army (see Video of Kaltenbrunner in Vienna January 1939). He was also a member of the Reichstag from 1938.

Kaltenbrunner with Himmler and Ziereis

Kaltenbrunner (front row, second from left) as spectator at a People's Court show trial following the failed 20 July plot.

Kaltenbrunner as spectator at a People's Court show trial following the failed 20 July plot.
World War II

In July 1940, he was commissioned as a SS-Untersturmführer in the Waffen-SS Reserve. Later in April 1941, he was promoted to major general (Generalleutnant) of the Police. On 30 January 1943 Kaltenbrunner was appointed Chief of the RSHA, composed of the SiPo (Sicherheitspolizei: the combined forces of the Gestapo and Kripo) along with the SD (Sicherheitsdienst: Security Service). He replaced Reinhard Heydrich, who was assassinated in June 1942. Kaltenbrunner held this position until the end of the war. He was promoted to SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Polizei on 21 June 1943. He also replaced Heydrich as President of the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC), the organization today known as Interpol.

Toward the end of the war, Kaltenbrunner's power increased greatly, especially after the attack on Hitler of 20 July 1944, upon which he gained direct access to the Führer. He was also responsible for conducting "kangaroo trials" and calling for the execution of all the people who were accused of plotting against Hitler. It was often said that even Heinrich Himmler feared him and he managed to be an intimidating figure with his height, facial scars and volatile temper. It was rumored that he was responsible for Adolf Eichmann's failure to attain the rank of SS-colonel. Kaltenbrunner was also long-time friends with Otto Skorzeny and recommended him for many secret missions, allowing Skorzeny to become one of Hitler's valued agents. Kaltenbrunner was also responsible for heading Operation Long Jump, the attempt to assassinate Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt. Following Himmler's appointment as Minister of the Interior in August 1943, Kaltenbrunner sent him a letter wherein he argued that Himmler's new powers must be used to reverse the party cadre organisation's annexation.

In December 1944, Kaltenbrunner was granted the rank of General of the Waffen-SS. Other SS General Officers were granted equivalent Waffen-SS ranks in 1944 as well, so that in the event that they were captured by the Allies, they would have status as military officers instead of police officials. For those who had held police rank prior to 1944, the SS General's title could become rather lengthy. Kaltenbrunner was listed on the SS rolls in 1945 as SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Polizei und Waffen-SS. On 9 December 1944 he was awarded the Knights Cross of the War Merit Cross with Swords. In addition he was awarded the NSDAP Golden Party Badge and the Blutorden.

On 12 March 1945 a meeting took place in the Vorarlberg between Kaltenbrunner and Carl Jacob Burckhardt, President of the International Committee of the Red Cross (1945–48). By this stage the Nazis were willing to make some concessions to the wishes of the Red Cross.

On 18 April 1945, Himmler named Kaltenbrunner Commander-in-Chief of those remaining German forces in Southern Europe. Kaltenbrunner reorganized his intelligence agencies as a stay-behind underground net. He divided the subcommands between Otto Skorzeny, head of the sabotage units, and Wilhelm Waneck, who kept in contact not only with Kaltenbrunner and other centers in Germany, but also with stay-behind agents in the southern European capitals.

The Altaussee Treasures

In late April 1945, Kaltenbrunner fled his headquarters from Berlin to Altaussee, where he had often vacationed and had strong ties. While there, he opposed and thwarted the efforts of local governor August Eigruber to destroy the huge and irreplaceable collection of art stolen by the Nazis from museums and private collections across occupied Europe (more than 6,500 paintings plus statuary) which had been intended for Hitler's planned Führermuseum in Linz.

These were stored in a nearby extensive complex of salt mines. Eigruber was determined to carry out what he was determined was Hitler's true desire – to prevent the collection from falling into the hands of "Bolsheviks and Jews" by destroying it with explosives set off in the mine. Working with Dr. Emmerin Pöchmüller, the mine overseer, Kaltenbrunner countermanded the order and had the explosives removed. Thus he participated in the salvation of such world treasures as Michelangelo's Madonna of Bruges stolen from the Church of Our Lady in Bruges, and Jan van Eyck's Ghent Altarpiece stolen from Saint Bavo Cathedral in Ghent; Vermeer's The Astronomer and The Art of Painting.

On 12 May 1945 he was captured by a U.S. patrol and arrested.

Kaltenbrunner wheeled into court during the Nuremberg Trials after an illness.

Defendant Ernst Kaltenbrunner pleads "not guilty" to the charges against him at the International Military Tribunal trial of war criminals at Nuremberg.
Nuremberg trials

At the Nuremberg Trials, Kaltenbrunner was charged with conspiracy to commit crimes against peace, war-crimes and crimes against humanity. The most notable witness in this trial was Rudolf Höss, the camp commander of the Auschwitz concentration camp.

Due to his tight control over the RSHA, Kaltenbrunner was held directly responsible for the following crimes:
  • Mass murders of civilians of occupied countries by Einsatzgruppen
  • Screening of prisoner of war camps and executing racial and political undesirables
  • The taking of recaptured prisoners of war to concentration camps, where in some cases they were executed
  • Establishing concentration camps and committing racial and political undesirables to concentration and annihilation camps for slave labor and mass murder
  • Deportation of citizens of occupied countries for forced labor and disciplining of forced labor
  • The execution of captured commandos and paratroopers and protection of civilians who lynched Allied airmen who had been shot down over German-occupied territory
  • The taking of civilians of occupied countries to Germany for secret trial and punishment
  • Punishment of citizens of occupied territories under special criminal procedure and by summary methods
  • The execution and confinement of people in concentration camps for crimes allegedly committed by their relatives
  • Seizure and destruction/spoilation of public and private property
  • Murder of prisoners in SiPo and SD prisons
  • Persecution of Jews
  • Persecution of churches and religions
  • Persecution of gypsies
During the initial stages of the Nuremberg trials, Kaltenbrunner was absent because of two episodes of subarachnoid hemorrhage. His lawyer Kurt Kaufmann requested that Kaltenbrunner be acquitted on grounds of health complications as he was medically unfit for the trial. Kaltenbrunner's state of health improved and the tribunal denied his request for pardon. When Kaltenbrunner was released from a military hospital he pleaded not guilty to the charges of the indictment served on his person. Kaltenbrunner stressed during cross-examination that all decrees and legal documents which bore his signature were "rubber-stamped" and filed by his adjutant(s).

During the trial, Kaltenbrunner argued in his defense that his position as RSHA chief existed only in title and was only committed to matters of espionage and intelligence. He maintained that Himmler, as his superior, was the person actually culpable for the atrocities committed during his tenure as chief of the RSHA. The International Military Tribunal noted that Kaltenbrunner was a keen functionary in matters involving the sphere of the RSHA's intelligence network, but the evidence also showed that Kaltenbrunner was an active authority and participant in many instances of war crimes and crimes against humanity. On September 30, 1946 the IMT found Kaltenbrunner not guilty of crimes against peace. However, Kaltenbrunner was found guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity. On October 1, 1946 the IMT sentenced him to death by hanging.

Kaltenbrunner in the Dock at the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials.

Kaltenbrunner was executed by hanging at around 1:40 a.m. on 16 October 1946. Kaltenbrunner's last words were:

I have loved my German people and my fatherland with a warm heart. I have done my duty by the laws of my people and I am sorry this time my people were led by men who were not soldiers and that crimes were committed of which I had no knowledge. Germany, good luck.

The body of Ernst Kaltenbrunner after his execution, Oct. 16, 1946

Further evidence

In 2001, Ernst Kaltenbrunner's personal Nazi security seal was found in an Alpine lake in Styria, Austria, 56 years after he threw it away in an effort to hide his identity. The seal was recovered by a Dutch citizen on vacation. The seal has the words "Chef der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD" (Chief of the Security Police and SD) engraved on it. Experts have examined the seal and believe it was discarded in the final days of the war in May 1945. It was one of Kaltenbrunner's last acts as a free man. Kaltenbrunner gave himself up claiming to be a doctor and offering a false name. However, his mistress spotted him, and by chance occurrence, she called out his name and rushed to hug him. This action tipped off the Allied troops, resulting in his capture, trial, and execution.

Kaltenbrunner, pictured here in 1944, his Knights Cross of the War Merit Cross with Swords badly superimposed around his neck.
Portrayal in popular culture

Film and television

Kaltenbrunner has been portrayed by the following actors in film, television and theater productions.
  • Ernst Kaltenbrunner: Ideological Soldier of The Third Reich is a biographical work about Kaltenbrunner by Peter R. Black.
  • Nuremberg Diary is an account of the Defendants at Nuremberg by G. M. Gilbert.
  • The Nuremberg Interviews is a descriptive, yet autobiographical account of the Defendants at Nuremberg by Leon Goldensohn. Kaltenbrunner has his own section, in his own words in this book.
  • Freemasonry: Ideology, Organization, and Policy is a book about Freemasonry published with a foreword by Kaltenbrunner.
  • Hitler's Elite is a book by Louis L. Snyder compiling all of Hitler's top henchmen and has a section on Kaltenbrunner.
  • Gestapo: Instrument of Tyranny is a book by Edward Crankshaw that investigates the atmosphere within the Gestapo hierarchy and includes some information about Kaltenbrunner.
  • Colonization: Down to Earth, a fictional account of historic events merged with an alternate history, Harry Turtledove creates a scenario where Kaltenbrunner is the successor of Himmler as the third Führer and Reich Chancellor of the Greater German Reich and triggers a war between Nazi Germany and alien settlers, a war that results in the destruction of the Reich and the death of Kaltenbrunner himself.

Summary of his SS career

Dates of rank
Nazi awards and decorations

Obergruppenführer Ernst Kaltenbrunner (October 4, 1903 – October 16, 1946) was a senior Nazi official during World War II. He was Reinhard Heydrich's replacement as the Chief of Security Police and head of the Gestapo and SD (RSHA). He was also responsible for tracking down the people who tried to assassinate Hitler and prosecuting them. He was the highest ranking SS leader to face trial at Nuremberg. He was executed for war crimes and crimes against humanity.

Ernst Kaltenbrunner during the Nuremberg Trials.
  • I have loved my German people and my fatherland with a warm heart. I have done my duty by the laws of my people and I am sorry this time my people were led by men who were not soldiers and that crimes were committed of which I had no knowledge. Germany, good luck.
    • Last words, 10/16/46. Quoted in "The Mammoth Book of Eyewitness World War II" - Page 564 - by Jon E. Lewis - History - 2002
  • All offices of the SD and the security police are to be informed that pogroms of the populace against English and American terror-fliers were not to be interfered with; on the contrary, this hostile mood is to be fostered.
    • Quoted in "Tyranny on Trial: The Evidence at Nuremberg" by Whitney R. Harris - Law - 1954 - Page 235
  • I do not feel guilty of any war crimes, I have only done my duty as an intelligence organ, and I refuse to serve as an ersatz for Himmler.
    • Quoted in "Nuremberg Diary" - Page 5 - by G. M. Gilbert - History - 1995
  • Please report to RF SS and to the Fuehrer that all arrangements against Jews, political and concentration camp internees in the Protectorate have been taken care of by me personally today.
    • Radio message to Gruppenführer Fegelein Hq. of the Führer through Sturmbannfuehrer Sansoni, Berlin. Quoted in "Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal" - Page 310 - Nuremberg, Germany - 1947
  • Oppression is the essence of power.
    • To Heinrich Himmler. Quoted in "The Rand McNally Encyclopedia of World War II" - by John Keegan, Sydney L. Mayer - History - 1977 - Page 137
  • Armenia was always a minority nation. The Armenians were annihilated by the Russians and then by the Turks.
    • To Leon Goldensohn, about the Armenian Genocide, 6/6/46, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
  • Russia demanded Armenian territories, very cleverly using long-standing, bitter fights between Armenians and Turks.
    • To Leon Goldensohn, about the Armenian Genocide, 6/6/46, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
  • When I saw the newspaper headline "Gas Chamber Expert Captured" and an American lieutenant explained it to me, I was pale in amazement. How can they say such things about me? I told you I was only in charge of the Intelligence Service from 1943 on. The British even admitted that they tried to assassinate me because of that, not because of having anything to do with atrocities, you can be sure of that.
    • 4/11/46. Quoted in "Nuremberg Diary" - Page 255 - by G. M. Gilbert - History - 1995
  • In the first place, I should like to state to the Tribunal that I am fully aware of the serious character of the charges against me. I know the hatred of the world is directed against me; that I particularly since Himmler, Müller, and Pohl are no longer alive, must here, alone, give an account to the world and the Tribunal. I realize that I shall have to tell the truth in this courtroom, in order to enable the Court and the world to fully recognize and understand what has been going on in Germany during this war and to judge it with fairness.
    • 4/11/46. Quoted in "Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal" - Page 232 - Nuremberg, Germany - 1947
  • I know only that in my belief in Adolf Hitler I put all my strength at the disposal of my people. As a German soldier I could only put myself at the service of the defense against those destructive forces which had once brought Germany close to the abyss, and which today, after the collapse of the Reich, are still threatening the world. If I have made mistakes in my work through a false conception of obedience, if I carried out orders, all of which, insofar as they are alleged to be cardinal orders, were issued before my time of office, then they are part of a fate which is stronger than myself and which is carrying me along with it. I am accused here because substitutes are needed for the missing Himmler and other elements which were completely contrary to me. Whether my point of view and explanation are accepted or rejected, I ask you not to connect the fate and honor of hundreds of thousands of the living and dead of the General SS, of the Waffen-SS, and of the civil servants who, believing in their ideal, bravely defended, their Reich to the last, with your just curse against Himmler. Like myself, they believed that they were acting according to law.
    • 8/31/46. Quoted in "Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal" - Page 381 - Nuremberg, Germany - 1947
  • Among the spiritual forces secretly working in the camp of Germany's enemies and their allies in this war, as in the last, stands Freemasonry, the danger of whose activities has been repeatedly stressed by the Fuehrer in his speeches. The present brochure, now made available to the German and European peoples in a 3rd edition, is intended to shed light on this enemy working in the shadows. Though an end has been put to the activities of Masonic organizations in most European countries, particular attention must still be paid to Freemasonry, and most particularly to its membership, as the implements of the political will of a supra-governmental power. The events of the summer of 1943 in Italy demonstrate once again the latent danger always represented by individual Freemasons, even after the destruction of their Masonic organizations. Although Freemasonry was prohibited in Italy as early as 1925, it has retained significant political influence in Italy through its membership, and has continued to exert that influence in secrecy. Freemasons thus stood in the first ranks of the Italian traitors who believed themselves capable of dealing Fascism a death blow at a critical juncture, shamelessly betraying the Italian nation. The intended object of the 3rd printing of this brochure is to provide a clearer knowledge of the danger of Masonic corruption, and to keep the will to self-defence alive.
    • Foreword in "Freemasonry: Ideology, Organization, and Policy," first published in 1944.
  • I have talked to you in the past but we have always exchanged pleasantries. And it has always been assumed that I am Kaltenbrunner, the big bad man next to Himmler and the successor of Himmler. But I think you can see by this time, after having treated my brain hemorrhages, both in the hospital and here in my cell, that I am not the disagreeable, uncouth fellow the public probably thinks because of all the atrocities committed under Himmler's rule, and of which I am totally innocent.
    • To Leon Goldensohn, 3/22/46, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
  • I am thought of as another Himmler. I'm not. The papers make me out as a criminal. I never killed anyone.
    • To Leon Goldensohn, 4/8/46, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
  • There is no human law or law of God or national law that states that any healthy being has to permit the snake to eat the mouse - but on the other hand, it is perfectly justified to defend the mouse.
    • To Leon Goldensohn, 6/6/46, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - Page 151 - History - 2004
  • The quicker humanity advances, the more important it is to be the one who deals the first blow.
    • To Leon Goldensohn, 6/6/46, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - Page 151 - History - 2004
  • I was appointed by Hitler to succeed Canaris because it was well known and proven that my abilities were greater than those of Canaris.
    • To Leon Goldensohn, 6/6/46, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
  • (While smiling, and jokingly) You haven't come to see me for three weeks. I wondered whether you had become disgusted with us war criminals - particularly me, the so-called archcriminal of them all.
    • To Leon Goldensohn, 6/6/46, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
  • It is precisely the immediate and thorough eradication of the Jews in Italy which is the special interest of the present internal political situation and the general security in Italy.
    • To Herbert Kappler, October 11. Quoted in "The Battle for Rome" - Page 77 - by Robert Katz - History - 2003
  • The colonel in charge of the London prison that I was in has told me that I would be hanged in any case, no matter what the outcome would be. Since I am fully aware of that, all I want to do is to clear up on the fundamental things that are wrong here.
    • Quoted in "Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression" - by International Military Tribunal - 1946
  • Don't even step out of your garden gate until this matter has been clarified.
    • To Dr. Peter Kleist. Quoted in " The Last 100 Days" - by John Toland - 1966
  • (While playing solitaire and sipping cognac) It's all a lot of crap. The game is up.
    • To Adolf Eichmann, about the war, at a mountain villa in Austria. Quoted in "The Last 100 Days" - by John Toland - 1966
  • Ich bekenne mich nicht schuldig. (I do not believe that I have made myself guilty.)
    • 12/10/45. Quoted in "Nürnberg: Tribunal der Sieger" - Page 95 - by Werner Maser - Nuremberg, Germany - 1979
  • Where do you think I was today? I stood straight in front of him (Himmler) for a whole hour and talked, and he... he played with a puzzle the whole time – you know, this glass cube with three balls on the inside... When I finished, he took off his pince-nez, wiped it with a handkerchief – he has a skull even on his handkerchief – and said, "Listen, Ernst! Have you by any chance, ever had a dream, where you're riding in the back of a ragged truck to who knows where, and some monsters are sitting around you?" I didn’t say anything. Then he smiled and said, "Ernst, you know, I know as well as you that no astral exists. But what do you think, if you, and even Canaris, have your own people in 'Annenerbe', shouldn’t I have my own people there as well?" I did not understand what he meant. "Think Ernst, think!" he said. I kept silent. Then he smiled and asked, "Whose man do you think is Kröger?" ...Yes, Emma... It seems I'm too simple for all these intrigues... But I know that while the Führer needs me, my heart will keep beating...You know, Emma... Sometimes it seems to me, that it's not me who is alive, but it's the Führer who is living inside me...
    • To Emma, recorded by secret spy listening device WS-M/13 located in Kaltenbrunner's bedroom, 1/14/1935. Quoted in "Kröger's Revelation" - by Viktor Pelevin - 1991 - Page 277
  • The Prosecution holds me responsible for the concentration camps, for the destruction of Jewish life, for Einsatzgruppen and other things. All of this is neither in accord with the evidence nor with the truth. The accusers as well as the accused are exposed to the dangers of a summary proceeding. It is correct that I had to take over the Reich Security Main Office. There was no guilt in that in itself. Such offices exist in governments of other nations too. However, the task and activity assigned to me in 1943 consisted almost exclusively in the reorganization of the German political and military intelligence service, though not as Heydrich's successor. Almost a year after his death I had to accept this post under orders and as an officer at a time when suspicion fell on Admiral Canaris of having collaborated with the enemy for years. In a short time I ascertained the treason of Canaris and his accomplices to the most frightful extent.
    • 8/31/46. Quoted in "Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal" - Nuremberg, Germany - 1947

Ernst Kaltenbrunner at the Nuremberg Trial.

Quotes about Kaltenbrunner
  • As early as January 1934, Dr. Kaltenbrunner was jailed by the Dollfuss Government on account of his Nazi views and sent with other leading National Socialists into the concentration camp Kaisersteinbruch. He caused and led a hunger strike and forced the government to dismiss 490 National Socialist prisoners. In the following year he was jailed again, because of suspicion of high treason, and committed to the court martial of Wels (Upper Danube). After an investigation of many months, the accusation of high treason collapsed; but he was sentenced to 6 months' imprisonment for subversive activities. After the spring of 1935, Dr. Kaltenbrunner was the leader of the Austrian SS, the right to practice his profession having been suspended because of his National Socialist views. It rebounds to his credit that in this important position he succeeded through energetic leadership in maintaining the unity of the Austrian SS, which he had built up, in spite of all persecution, and succeeded in committing it successfully at the right moment.
    • Die Deutsche Polizei, the magazine of the Security Police and SD, on May 15, 1943.

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